Cronology

1870

Johan Gustaf Hellstén was born on 27 November 1870 in the village of Huljala in the municipality of Koski (present-day Hämeenkoski), 30 km west of Lahti. His father, Johan August Hellstén, was from Orivesi and in the service of a merchant named Karl Frestadius, and his mother, Karolina Wilhelmina Selin was from Lempäälä. The family were on their way from Tampere to a fair in Lahti, when they stopped over in Koski for two days. The baby is entered into the church register in Tampere.

1875

Mother Karolina died when Juho was four years old.

1876

Father Johan August purchases a piece of land in the market town of Lahti and
started a business as a fabric merchant.

1879

Juho attends primary school in Lahti, then part of the municipality of Hollola.

1882

Juho starts secondary school in Hämeenlinna.

1884

When father Johan August died, Juho’s maternal aunt Kaisa Hagman took over the fabric shop, but the business failed, and the property was subsequently sold. During his school holidays Juho helps out in Kaisa’s next venture, a bric-a-brac shop.

1887

Juho starts upper secondary school and Finnicizes his name to Juho Kusti Paasikivi.

1890

Juho graduates from upper secondary school earning grades in 17 different subjects.

He enrols in the Imperial Alexander University (later University of Helsinki) majoring in Russian language and literature. He joins the student organisation Hämäläis-Osakunta (Tavastia Nation).

He works as a contributor in the newspaper Uusi Suometar 1890–

1891

Study and work trip as a journalist to Novgorod. His travel journals published in Uusi Suometar of 26 July, 16 September, 24 September, 14 October, and 11 November 1891 have been published in a book Kirjeitä Novgorodista [Letters from Novgorod], authored by J.K. Paasikivi. Novgorod: Novgorodski gosudarstvennyi universitet, 2010. Published in this site.

1892

Master’s degree majoring in Russian language and literature with Russian history as a minor, which he later upgraded to a full degree.

1893

Begins to study law.

Met and became engaged to Anna Forsman.

1894

Secretary of the Fennoman student organisation Suomalainen Nuija.

1895

Chairman of Suomalainen Nuija 1895–1896.

Moved to the market town of Lahti. Undertakes several municipal positions and promotes the construction of a primary school in Lahti, is one of the founders of Lahden yhteiskoulu secondary school, teaches mathematics and music for one year as a side-line, helps establish Lahti adult education institution, is one of the signatories of the city charter of Lahti,
and supervisor and locum bank manager for Kansallis-Osake-Pankki, fennoman bank.

1897

Master of Laws.

Marriage to Anna Forsman on 1 June 1897 (Anna died in 1931) in Stenkulla in Tikkurila, in the Rural Municipality of Helsinki.

Member of Lahti town council 1897–1899.

Serves as a judge in Hollola jurisdiction, a police chief in Asikkala and was the first attorney in Lahti to open a private practice.

1898

Spends the summer in Stockholm gathering research material for his doctoral thesis.

Daughter Annikki Paasikivi born, architect, d. 1966.

1899

Studies at the University of Leipzig during the summer term.

Lecturer in Finnish at the University of Helsinki Faculty of Law 1899–1902.

He collects signatures in Lahti for the major petition in protest of the Russification program called February Manifesto.

Moved to Helsinki in the autumn.

Lecturer of commercial law at the Suomen Liikemiesten Kauppaopisto business college 1899–1901.

1900

Spends the summer in Stockholm at the National Archives.

Daughter Wellamo born, later Paasikivi-Ant-Wuorinen, dentist, d. 1966.

Was one of the founders of Lahden lehti newspaper.

1901

The legal secretary for Pellervo Society, key organization of the early cooperative movement, 1901–1903.

Licentiate of Laws.

Doctor of Laws, doctoral thesis on the development of legal practice in fiscal and financial control in the early Swedish-Finnish law: Lainkäytön kehittymisestä veronkanto- ja finanssikontrolliasioissa varhaisimman ruotsalais-suomalaisen oikeuden mukaankompetenssikysymys.

Published a book:Kyydinpito ja kestikievarilaitos Suomen lain mukaan. [Carriage services and innkeeping under Finnish law.]

Curator for regional Hämäläis-Osakunta student union of the university 1901–1902.

Son Juhani Paasikivi was born, later lieutenant colonel, d.  1942.

1902

Assistant professor in administrative law at the University of Helsinki 1902–1903.

Chairman of the inspection committee for carriage service legislation 1902-1903.

Publishes a booklet Osuustoimintalain pääkohdat. [Main points of the law on co-operative undertakings] Pellervon kirjasto N:o 10. Pellervo Society.

Member of a committee that established a new banking system in Finland based on co-operative principles (co-operative banks).

1903

General Director of the State Treasury 1903–1914.

Member of the Board of Governors for the Pellervo Society 1903-1908.

Member of the central committee of the Finnish Party 1903–1913.

Daughter Varma Paasikivi born, later Bachelor of Medicine, d. 1941.

1904

Secretary to the Peasants’ estate in the old four estate Parliament of Finland 1904–1905.

Publicly condemns the assassination of Nikolay Bobrikov, Governor-General of Finland, as a ”hideous and outrageous crime” in the newspaper Uusi Suometar.

1905

Member of the parliamentary reform committee 1905–1906.

Stands as a candidate in the election of the Burghers’ estate, but is not elected.

Was one of the authors of the Finnish Party manifesto, focusing on the question of rural population and the reform of municipal legislation.

1906

Member of the Finnish Party council 1906–1912. Member of the working committee of the Finnish Party. Member of committees preparing matters related to the language question, the tenant farmer/agrarian question, tax reform,

member of the editorial board of culture magazine Aika 1906-1915.

Member of the Board of the Association of Finnish Culture and Identity.

1907

Prior to the convening of the radically reformed one chamber Parliament elected in democratic vote in 1907, the party council discusses future parliamentary work. The key questions were prepared by a committee, in which Paasikivi was a member.

15–16 March, the first general election for the unicameral parliament, universal suffrage also for women.

Member of Parliament (Finnish Party, Turku and Pori Province north constituency) 22 May 1907–31 May 1909, Chairman of the Agricultural Committee.

Committee preparing the amendment of the decree on municipal decrees 1907–1908.

1908

Head of the Economic Division of the Senate, (minister of finance) 1 July 1908–13 November 1909 (Edvard Hjelt’s Senate); after the resignation of the Constitutionalist senators, Paasikivi also heads the ministry of transport and public works.

Kansantaloudellinen Yhdistys [Economic Society], Chairman 1908, 1925, 1930–1931.

1909

New edition of Osuustoimintalain pääkohdat. [Main points of the law on co-operative undertakings] 2nd revised edition. Pellervo Society.

1910

Member of Parliament (Finnish Party) 1 March 1910–1 February 1914, Chairman of the Bank Committee.

Member of the Supervisory Board, Life Insurance Company Salama 1910–1937.

1912

Chairman of the committee for the land tenancy reform 1912–1914.

Chairman of the Board, Kustannusosakeyhtiö Kirja publishers 1912–1934.

1914

Director General (CEO) of commercial bank Kansallis-Osake-Pankki 1914–1934.

Member of the Supervisory Board for Osuuskassojen Keskuslainarahasto [Central Loan Fund for Cooperative Banking Associations] 1914, 1935–1946.

1915

Member of Helsinki City Council 1915–1918.

Member of the Russian-Finnish committee determining the exchange rate for the rouble.

Member of the Board of Emissioni Oy 1903–1908.

Member of the Board, Vice Chairman, Chairman of the Finnish Banking Association
1915–1934.

1916

Member of the stock exchange committee of Helsinki Stock Exchange 1916–1926.

1917

Member of the central committee of the Finnish Party 1917–1918.

Deputy member of the joint delegation of the non-socialist parties.

Member of the conference for Finnish and Russian jurists.

Member of the Constitutional Committee chaired by K.J. Ståhlberg.

Purchases the Skogster Estate in the village of Yli-Kerava in the then Greater Tuusula (present-day Kerava,30 km noth of Helsinki) with more than 150 hectares of land, half of which was arable land. He names the estate Jukola and he owned it until 1953.

4.12. Svinhufvud’s senate adopted Finland’s declaration of independence.

Paasikivi makes visits to other Sweden, Denmark and Norway 1 December 1917–5 January 1918 as the Senate’s representative to take soundings on the recognition of Finland’s independence.

1918

The Parliament appoints Paasikivi as one of the members of the Finnish-Russian joint committee, but the committee never took office.

26.1. The socialist revolution begins in Finland.

Paasikivi, who had been ordered under arrest by the reds, went into hiding in the homes of Walter Sipilä and Eino Suolahti for the duration of the revolution.

18.5. P.E. Svinhufvud, Chairman of the Senate, was appointed Regent of Finland, who exercised the powers of head of state.

Vice-Chairman of the Economic Division of the Senate (Prime Minister, Paasikivi’s 1st government) 27 May 1918–27 November 1918

Joins the National Coalition Party, which had been established on 9 December 1918 to continue the mission of the Finnish Party. Serves as the member of the provisional party administration.

1919

Chairman of the committee on national conscription.

Chairman of the Board for the Finnish Transoceanic Trading Co. Ltd 1919–1921.

1920

Chairman of Economic Advisory Board 1920–1921.

Chairman of the Finnish delegation for the peace negotiations with Soviet Russia in Tartu, Estonia, the signing of the Treaty of Tartu 14 October 1920.

1923

Speech marking the 70th birthday of Senator J.R. Danielson-Kalmari (Paasikiven linja II).

1924

Member of the committee for the reform of the Finnish monetary system 1924–1925.

Member of the Board of the Finnish Taxpayers’ Association 1924–1926.

Chairman of the Board of Suomen Teollisuus-Hypoteekki-Pankki, industrial ban, 1924–1946.

1925

Speech at the National Coalition Party event before the upcoming presidential election 11 January 1925 (Paasikiven linja II)

Lecture ”Eräitä ilmiöitä valtiollisessa elämässämme” [On the phenomena in our national politics] National Coalition Party conference in Vaasa 7 November 1925 (Paasikiven linja II)

1926

Chairman of the Society of the Friends of History 1926–1946.

1927

Founder of the Finnish chapter of the International Chamber of Commerce and its first chairman.

Speech at the opening of the 3rd Domestic Week at the Finnish National Theatre 18 September 1927 (Paasikiven linja II).

1928

Member of the official Economic Advisory Board 1928–1932.

Chairman of the Finland Chamber of Commerce 1928–1941.

Speech at the electoral meeting of the Finland Chamber of Commerce in Turku 18 Feburary 1928, where Paasikivi was elected the Chairman of the Finland Chamber of Commerce.

Speech at the dinner of the Norwegian trade association Norges Handelsstands Förbund during the Nordic trade meeting on 24 September 1928 (Paasikiven linja II).

1929

Member of the committee for the corporate tax reform.

Chairman of the delegation of the Chemistry Research Foundation (the Nutrition Research Foundation) 1929–1944.

Lecture “Politics and economic life” in the National Coalition Party conference in Helsinki 21 February 1929 (Paasikiven linja II).

1930

Awarded the high honorary title of Valtioneuvos [Counsellor of State]

Member of the historical committee of the City of Helsinki 1930–1946.

Lecture “Taxation, democracy, parliamentarism”. The 5th Trade and Industrial Conference in Tampere 2 October 1930 (Paasikiven linja II).

1931

Lecture “Economic situation”. The National Coalition Party conference in Tampere 24 May 1931 (Paasikiven linja II).

Paasikivi’s first wife Anna Forsman dies.

1933

Speech to the members of the British trade delegation at the dinner of the Finland Chamber of Commerce at Seurahuone Hotel in Helsinki 13 February 1933 (Paasikiven linja II).

Lecture “Politics and the economy.” The Trade and Industrial Conference in Oulu 6 October 1933 (Paasikiven linja II).

1934

Marriage to Alli (Allina) Valve, chief cashier in the bank.

Member of the committee on the reduction of government expenditure.

Chairman of the committee for the promotion of Nordic economic cooperation 1934–1939.

Chairman of Finnish Export Association (The Finnish Foreign Trade Association 1938–), Chairman; 1934 – 1941.

Chairman of the National Coalition Party Council (Chairman of the party) 5 May 1934–19 November 1936.

Lecture “Democracy or dictatorship? What do the principles of the National Coalition Party mean?” Tampere 25 October 1934 and Viipuri 28 October 1934 (Paasikiven linja II).

Speech “National and economic freedom”. The autumn joint celebration of National Coalition Party Helsinki chapters 16 December 1934.

Lecture “The state and economics”. The National Coalition Party conference in Pori 30 December 1934 (Paasikiven linja II).

1935

Member of the Supervisory Board of Directors, Kansallis-Osake-Pankki 1935–1946.

Chairman of the committee on the reform of the state economy 1935.

Member of the Supervisory Board for Osuuskassojen Keskuslainarahasto [Central Loan Fund for Cooperative Banking Associations] 1935-1946.

Lecture “On current affairs”. The National Coalition Party council meeting Helsinki 28 April 1935 (Paasikiven linja II).

Lecture “Political viewpoints”. The National Coalition Party conference in Helsinki 16 November 1935 (Paasikiven linja II).

1936

Finnish Minister in Stockholm 1936–1940.

Member of the National Coalition Party council and working committee.

Lecture “What is the way forward for the National Coalition party?” The National Coalition Party conference in Turku 26 January 1936 (Paasikiven linja II).

Speech “The political principles of the National Coalition Party”. Helsinki 8 March 1936 (Paasikiven linja II).

Lecture “The economic development in independent Finland”. The Finnish Week in Stockholm 22 April 1936 (Paasikiven linja II).

Speech “The house must be repaired, not demolished”. The National Coalition Party conference in Lahti 21 May 1936 (Paasikiven linja II).

Speech “Freedom”. The National Coalition Party event in Lapua 21 June 1936 (Paasikiven linja II).

Speech at the National Coalition Party Council meeting 19 November 1936 (Paasikiven linja II).

1937

Speech “Finland’s development in the past few decades”. Meeting of the Swedish-Finnish Society in Stockholm 25 January 1937 (Paasikiven linja II).

1939

Lecture “Collaboration between the government and the industry. (Debate in Sweden)”. Meeting of the Finland Chamber of Commerce Tampere 1 March 1939 (Paasikiven linja II).

Chairman of the Finnish delegation in negotiations with Soviet Union in Moscow 12–14 October, 3–4 November and 9 November 1939.

30 November The Soviet Union invades Finland. The Winter War begins.

Minister without portfolio in Ryti’s government 1 December 1939–27 March 1940.

1940

6–11 March 1940 the negotiator for Finland in Moscow peace negotiations.

13 March Moscow Peace Treaty. The Winter War ends.

20 March Paasikivi together with Väinö Voionmaa exchange ratifications of the peace treaty in Moscow.

Finland’s Minister Moscow 1940–May 1941.

1941

25 June The Continuation War between Finland and Soviet Union begins.

1942

Speech at the dinner of the Finnish Foreign Trade Association 27 April 1942 (Paasikiven linja II).

1944

Preliminary peace negotiator in Stockholm and Moscow in February and March 1944.

19 September the war with Soviet Union ends, the Moscow Armistice.

Prime Minister (Paasikivi’s 2nd government) 17 November 1944–17 April 1945.

Independence Day address 1944, the key document of the new policy (Paasikiven linja I).

1945

Speech on the radio before the general election 15 March 1945 (Paasikiven linja I).

Prime Minister (Paasikivi’s 3rd government) 17 April 1945–9 March 1946.

Speech on the radio on topical internal policy and economic questions 29 April 1945 (Paasikiven linja I).

Speech on the radio to mark the end of the war in Europe 7 May 1945 (Paasikiven linja I).

Speech on the anniversary of the Moscow Armistice 19 September 1945 (Paasikiven linja I).

Independence Day address 1945 (Paasikiven linja I).

Prime Minister Paasikivi’s address to the press corps in December 1945 (Paasikiven linja I).

1946

New Year’s Day address 1946 (Paasikiven linja I).

Address at the closing ceremony of the parliamentary session 25 January 1946 (Paasikiven linja I).

Address at the opening ceremony of the parliamentary session 2 February 1946 (Paasikiven linja I).

Prime Minister Paasikivi’s address and responses to the press corps 11 February 1946 (Paasikiven linja I)

Speech to Swedish radio listeners 25 February 1946 (Paasikiven linja I).

Speech on the radio on 4 March 1946 on the resignation of Marshal C.G. Mannerheim as the President of the Republic (Paasikiven linja I).

After Mannerheim’s resignation, the Parliament passes an exceptive act and elects directly Paasikivi as president with 159 votes against former president K.J. Ståhlberg’s 14 votes and 11 blank votes (out of 200 votes).

President of the Republic of Finland 9 March–1956.

Inaugural speech at the Inauguration of the President of the Republic 11 March 1946 (Paasikiven linja I).

1947

New Year’s Day address 1947 (Paasikiven linja I).

Address at the closing ceremony of the parliamentary session 28 January 1947 (Paasikiven linja I).

Address at the opening ceremony of the parliamentary session 5 February 1946 (Paasikiven linja I).

The peace treaty is signed in Paris 10 February 1947.

Finland ratified the Paris Peace Treaty on 18 April 1947.

Address at the 40th anniversary of the Parliament 23 May 1947 (Paasikiven linja I).

The Paris Peace Treaty enters into force on 15 September 1947.

The members of the Allied Control Commission left Finland on 25 September 1947.

Address at a peace celebration in Helsinki Fair Centre 18 September 1947 (Paasikiven linja I).

Independence Day address at Helsinki Fair Centre 1947 (Paasikiven linja I).

1948

New Year’s Day address 1948 (Paasikiven linja I).

6 April The Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance (YYA Treaty) was signed between Finland and the Soviet Union.

Speech on the radio to mark the signing of the YYA Treaty 9 April 1948 (Paasikiven linja I).

1950

Re-election as the President of the Republic. Paasikivi receives 171 electoral votes, Mauno Pekkala 67 and Urho Kekkonen 62. There were 300 electors.

Inaugural speech as the re-elected President at the Inauguration of the President of the Republic 1 March 1950 (Paasikiven linja I).

Honorary doctorate of economics, Helsinki School of Economics.

Honorary doctorate of political science, University of Helsinki.

After the war, nearly twenty pieces of land, some 27 hectares, were redeemed from Paasikivi’s Jukola Estate Ltd on the decision of the Land Redemption Board for the purpose of resettling families after the war. The main portion, some 125 hectares were purchased by the town of Kerava in two instalments in 1947 and 1950 at market price. The second portion of the redeemed land included some 34 hectares and the 3.5 hectare Jukola farm. Today (2020) Jukola is owned by Paasikivi Youth Home Foundation.

1955

19 September Agreement on handing back the control of Porkkala, which was under Soviet lease as a military base, 50 km west of Helsinki.

Speech to mark the return of Porkkala 22 September 1955 (Paasikiven linja I).

The Soviet Union present Paasikivi with the country’s highest civilian decoration on his 85th birthday on 27 November 1955.

Finland was accepted as a member to the United Nations.

1956

New Year’s Day address 1956 (Paasikiven linja I).

Address at the closing ceremony of the parliamentary session 25 January 1956 (Paasikiven linja I).

26.1. The Soviet Union returns the military base of Porkkala to Finland.

Address at the opening ceremony of the parliamentary session 8 February 1956 (Paasikiven linja I).

Address at the end of his second term as the President of the Republic 1 March 1956 (Paasikiven linja I).

Presidential election. Paasikivi makes the second round of the electoral process. K-A. Fagerholm received 114 votes, Urho Kekkonen 102 votes and Paasikivi 84 votes. The two candidates with the most votes made it to the third round.

Paasikiven linja I–II. Juho Kusti Paasikiven puheita ja esitelmiä vuosilta 1923–1956 [Via Paasikivi I–II. Juho Kusti Paasikivi’s speeches and lectures from 1923–1956.] (Russian edition 1958)

14 December 1956 Juho Kusti Paasikivi died in Helsinki.

1957

Paasikiven muistelmia sortovuosilta I–II [Paasikivi’s memoirs from the years of oppression ] (Swedish edition 1960).

1958

Toimintani Moskovassa ja Suomessa 1939–41 I–II[My work in Moscow and Finland 1939–1941 I–II]. 1958 (Swedish edition 1958–1959; German edition 1966).

27 November 1958 The Paasikivi Society was established.

1961

The statue of President Paasikivi was unveiled in Lahti, sculptor Veikko Leppänen.

1980

The Paasikivi memorial statueis unveiled in Helsinki, sculptor Harri Kivijärvi.

1985

J. K. Paasikiven päiväkirjat 1944–1956 I–II[The Diaries of J.K. Paasikivi 1944–1956 I–II]. 1985–1986 (Swedish edition 1986–1987).

1991

Jatkosodan päiväkirjat [Diaries from the Continuation War]. 1991 (Swedish edition 1991).

2004

Ei pienillä ole mitään turvaa.” J. K. Paasikiven päiväkirjat 1934–1939[“Small countries haver no safety” Diaries of J.K. Paasikivi 1934–1939]. Kansallisarkiston ystävät – Riksarkivets vänner ry (Friends of the Finnish National Archives).

Translation AAC Global 2020.